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Visual Basic für Einsteiger. Anregungen zur Programmierung mit Visual Basic, VBA, HTML, JavaScript und ASP, sowie Themen zu PC und Internet. Objektorientierte Programmierung Bietet Links zu Seiten mit Einführungen in die objektorientierte Programmierung und beschreibt das Erstellen. NET Framework benötigt. Visual ceesdevriesedelsmid.nl unterstützt die objektorientierte Programmierung vollständig und verfügt über eine Ausnahmebehandlung, wie sie. Lerne programmieren mit dem VBA-Tutorial, einer leicht verständlichen Einführung in die VBA−Programmierung für VBA−Einsteiger. Für das VBA-​Tutorial ist es. Die deutschsprachige Internetadresse, wenn es um Visual Basic Programmierung geht. Immer aktuell und täglich neu!

Vb Programmierung

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Office applications are powerful; the solution that you need may already be there. Take some time to learn more about Office before you jump into programming.

Programming requires focus and can be unpredictable. Especially as a beginner, never turn to programming unless you have time to work carefully.

Trying to write a "quick script" to solve a problem when a deadline looms can result in a very stressful situation. If you are in a rush, you might want to use conventional methods, even if they are monotonous and repetitive.

You might think that writing code is mysterious or difficult, but the basic principles use every-day reasoning and are quite accessible.

Microsoft Office applications are created in such a way that they expose things called objects that can receive instructions, in much the same way that a phone is designed with buttons that you use to interact with the phone.

When you press a button, the phone recognizes the instruction and includes the corresponding number in the sequence that you are dialing.

In programming, you interact with the application by sending instructions to various objects in the application.

These objects are expansive, but they have their limits. They can only do what they are designed to do, and they will only do what you instruct them to do.

For example, consider the user who opens a document in Word, makes a few changes, saves the document, and then closes it. Developers organize programming objects in a hierarchy, and that hierarchy is called the object model of the application.

Word, for example, has a top-level Application object that contains a Document object. The Document object contains Paragraph objects and so on.

Object models roughly mirror what you see in the user interface. They are a conceptual map of the application and its capabilities.

The definition of an object is called a class, so you might see these two terms used interchangeably. Technically, a class is the description or template that is used to create, or instantiate, an object.

Once an object exists, you can manipulate it by setting its properties and calling its methods. If you think of the object as a noun, the properties are the adjectives that describe the noun and the methods are the verbs that animate the noun.

Changing a property changes some quality of appearance or behavior of the object. Calling one of the object methods causes the object to perform some action.

The VBA code in this article runs against an open Office application where many of the objects that the code manipulates are already up and running; for example, the Application itself, the Worksheet in Excel, the Document in Word, the Presentation in PowerPoint, the Explorer and Folder objects in Outlook.

Once you know the basic layout of the object model and some key properties of the Application that give access to its current state, you can start to extend and manipulate that Office application with VBA in Office.

In Word, for example, you can change the properties and invoke the methods of the current Word document by using the ActiveDocument property of the Application object.

This ActiveDocument property returns a reference to the Document object that is currently active in the Word application.

The following code does exactly what it says; that is, it saves the active document in the application. Read the code from left to right, "In this Application, with the Document referenced by ActiveDocument, invoke the Save method.

You instruct a Document object to Save and it does not require any more input from you. If a method requires more information, those details are called parameters.

The following code runs the SaveAs method, which requires a new name for the file. Values listed in parentheses after a method name are the parameters.

Here, the new name for the file is a parameter for the SaveAs method. You use the same syntax to set a property that you use to read a property.

The following code executes a method to select cell A1 in Excel and then to set a property to put something in that cell.

The first challenge in VBA programming is to get a feeling for the object model of each Office application and to read the object, method, and property syntax.

The object models are similar in all Office applications, but each is specific to the kind of documents and objects that it manipulates.

In the first line of the code snippet, there is the Application object, Excel this time, and then the ActiveSheet , which provides access to the active worksheet.

After that is a term not as familiar, Range, which means "define a range of cells in this way. In other words, the first line of code defines an object, the Range, and runs a method against it to select it.

The result is automatically stored in another property of the Application called Selection. The second line of code sets the Value property of Selection to the text "Hello World", and that value appears in cell A1.

The simplest VBA code that you write might simply gain access to objects in the Office application that you are working with and set properties.

For example, you could get access to the rows in a table in Word and change their formatting in your VBA script. That sounds simple, but it can be incredibly useful; once you can write that code, you can harness all of the power of programming to make those same changes in several tables or documents, or make them according to some logic or condition.

For a computer, making changes is no different from making 10, so there is an economy of scale here with larger documents and problems, and that is where VBA can really shine and save you time.

Now that you know something about how Office applications expose their object models, you are probably eager to try calling object methods, setting object properties, and responding to object events.

To do so, you must write your code in a place and in a way that Office can understand; typically, by using the Visual Basic Editor. Although it is installed by default, many users do not know that it is even available until it is enabled on the ribbon.

All Office applications use the ribbon. One tab on the ribbon is the Developer tab, where you access the Visual Basic Editor and other developer tools.

Because Office does not display the Developer tab by default, you must enable it by using the following procedure:.

On the File tab, choose Options to open the Options dialog box. Under Choose commands from on the left side of the dialog box, select Popular Commands.

Under Customize the Ribbon on the right side of the dialog box, select Main Tabs in the drop down list box, and then select the Developer checkbox.

In Office , you displayed the Developer tab by choosing the Office button, choosing Options , and then selecting the Show Developer tab in Ribbon check box in the Popular category of the Options dialog box.

After you enable the Developer tab, it is easy to find the Visual Basic and Macros buttons. To protect Office users against viruses and dangerous macro code, you cannot save macro code in a standard Office document that uses a standard file extension.

Instead, you must save the code in a file with a special extension. For example you cannot save macros in a standard Word document with a.

When you open a. Examine the settings and options in the Trust Center on all Office applications. The default setting disables macro from running, but warns you that macros have been disabled and gives you the option to turn them back on for that document.

You can designate specific folders where macros can run by creating Trusted Locations, Trusted Documents, or Trusted Publishers. The most portable option is to use Trusted Publishers, which works with digitally signed documents that you distribute.

For more information about the security settings in a particular Office application, open the Options dialog box, choose Trust Center , and then choose Trust Center Settings.

Some Office applications, like Outlook, save macros by default in a master template on your local computer. Although that strategy reduces the local security issues on your own computer when you run your own macros, it requires a deployment strategy if you want to distribute your macro.

When you choose the Macro button on the Developer tab, it opens the Macros dialog box, which gives you access to VBA subroutines or macros that you can access from a particular document or application.

Another button on the Developer tab in Word and Excel is the Record Macro button, which automatically generates VBA code that can reproduce the actions that you perform in the application.

Record Macro is a terrific tool that you can use to learn more about VBA. Reading the generated code can give you insight into VBA and provide a stable bridge between your knowledge of Office as a user and your knowledge as a programmer.

The only caveat is that the generated code can be confusing because the Macro editor must make some assumptions about your intentions, and those assumptions are not necessarily accurate.

Open Excel to a new Workbook and choose the Developer tab in the ribbon. Choose Record Macro and accept all of the default settings in the Record Macro dialog box, including Macro1 as the name of the macro and This Workbook as the location.

Choose OK to begin recording the macro. Note how the button text changes to Stop Recording. Choose that button the instant you complete the actions that you want to record.

Choose cell B1 and type the programmer's classic first string: Hello World. Stop typing and look at the Stop Recording button; it is grayed out because Excel is waiting for you to finish typing the value in the cell.

Choose cell B2 to complete the action in cell B1, and then choose Stop Recording. Be aware of the similarities to the earlier code snippet that selected text in cell A1, and the differences.

In this code, cell B1 is selected, and then the string "Hello World" is applied to the cell that has been made active. The quotes around the text specify a string value as opposed to a numeric value.

Remember how you chose cell B2 to display the Stop Recording button again? That action shows up as a line of code as well. The macro recorder records every keystroke.

The lines of code that start with an apostrophe and colored green by the editor are comments that explain the code or remind you and other programmers the purpose of the code.

VBA ignores any line, or portion of a line, that begins with a single quote. Writing clear and appropriate comments in your code is an important topic, but that discussion is out of the scope of this article.

Subsequent references to this code in the article do not include those four comment lines. When the macro recorder generates the code, it uses a complex algorithm to determine the methods and the properties that you intended.

If you do not recognize a given property, there are many resources available to help you. For example, in the macro that you recorded, the macro recorder generated code that refers to the FormulaR1C1 property.

Not sure what that means? Be aware that Application object is implied in all VBA macros. The code that you recorded works with Application.

Select FormulaR1C1 in the recorded macro and press F1. The Help system runs a quick search, determines that the appropriate subjects are in the Excel Developer section of the Excel Help, and lists the FormulaR1C1 property.

You can choose the link to read more about the property, but before you do, be aware of the Excel Object Model Reference link near the bottom of the window.

Choose the link to view a long list of objects that Excel uses in its object model to describe the Worksheets and their components. Choose any one of those to see the properties and methods that apply to that particular object, along with cross references to different related options.

Many Help entries also have brief code examples that can help you. For example, you can follow the links in the Borders object to see how to set a border in VBA.

The Borders code looks different from the recorded macro. One thing that can be confusing with an object model is that there is more than one way to address any given object, cell A1 in this example.

Sometimes the best way to learn programming is to make minor changes to some working code and see what happens as a result.

Try it now. Open Macro1 in the Visual Basic Editor and change the code to the following. You do not need to save the code to try it out, so return to the Excel document, choose Macros on the Developer tab, choose Macro1 , and then choose Run.

Cell A1 now contains the text Wow! You just combined macro recording, reading the object model documentation, and simple programming to make a VBA program that does something.

The VBA community is very large; a search on the Web can almost always yield an example of VBA code that does something similar to what you want to do.

Interrupt process is check device signal if the devices has already in sending code to comm port of computer. Polling Communication In PC system ,the polling has some transfering between terminal and CPU in case data is byte type that keyborad send coming.

The polling will be through checking signal from device such as keyboard polling as user press button. MSComm Elemant. Setting Communication of Serial Port.

Using Buffer for receive and sent data. Define MSComm Control properties to connect port. We can using the MSComm properties allow the setting of communication parameters including port selection and port enabling functions.

Exemple If we want print data to port while we are typing data to keyborad ,we use event the KeyPress of Control TextBox.

Text End If TextShow. Text End Sub. Copy code in ListBox below. Using Even in OnComm procedure. Final Notes 1. Check your serial port programming manual for the correct number of characters to be recieved and add one for the carriage return.

The command sends both a carriage return and line feed thus two must be added to the number of characters expected.

In the. Net Framework 1. It is similar to using a static ADO recordset because it parses and loads the entire XmlDocument into memory.

But there are number of problems with XmlDocument. It consumes lot of memory. It is preferred class to use for XSLT transformations.

It is maintained that you should use the XPathDocument instead of XmlDocument except in situations where you must maintain compatibility with previous.

NET framework versions. The XML classes in the System. Xml namespace provide a comprehensive and integrated set of classes, allowing you to work with XML documents and data.

There are different classes available to read and write XML document in. Net Framework. They are:. NET framework. Pull style means you can skip unwanted nodes while reading.

It provides fast, forward-only, read-only access to XML document. It defines methods and properties that allow you to move through the data and read the contents of a node.

XmlReader is an actually an abstract class that other classes derive from to provide specific concrete instances like XmlTextReader and XmlNodeReader.

New changes have been added to XmlReader in. Net framework 2. Now you don't need to create concrete implementations of XmlReader class, you can create an instance of XmlReaderSettings class and pass it to the create method.

EventArgs Handles Me. Combine Request. When you choose the Macro button on the Developer tab, it opens the Macros dialog box, which gives you access to VBA subroutines or macros that you can access from a particular document or application.

Another button on the Developer tab in Word and Excel is the Record Macro button, which automatically generates VBA code that can reproduce the actions that you perform in the application.

Record Macro is a terrific tool that you can use to learn more about VBA. Reading the generated code can give you insight into VBA and provide a stable bridge between your knowledge of Office as a user and your knowledge as a programmer.

The only caveat is that the generated code can be confusing because the Macro editor must make some assumptions about your intentions, and those assumptions are not necessarily accurate.

Open Excel to a new Workbook and choose the Developer tab in the ribbon. Choose Record Macro and accept all of the default settings in the Record Macro dialog box, including Macro1 as the name of the macro and This Workbook as the location.

Choose OK to begin recording the macro. Note how the button text changes to Stop Recording. Choose that button the instant you complete the actions that you want to record.

Choose cell B1 and type the programmer's classic first string: Hello World. Stop typing and look at the Stop Recording button; it is grayed out because Excel is waiting for you to finish typing the value in the cell.

Choose cell B2 to complete the action in cell B1, and then choose Stop Recording. Be aware of the similarities to the earlier code snippet that selected text in cell A1, and the differences.

In this code, cell B1 is selected, and then the string "Hello World" is applied to the cell that has been made active. The quotes around the text specify a string value as opposed to a numeric value.

Remember how you chose cell B2 to display the Stop Recording button again? That action shows up as a line of code as well. The macro recorder records every keystroke.

The lines of code that start with an apostrophe and colored green by the editor are comments that explain the code or remind you and other programmers the purpose of the code.

VBA ignores any line, or portion of a line, that begins with a single quote. Writing clear and appropriate comments in your code is an important topic, but that discussion is out of the scope of this article.

Subsequent references to this code in the article do not include those four comment lines. When the macro recorder generates the code, it uses a complex algorithm to determine the methods and the properties that you intended.

If you do not recognize a given property, there are many resources available to help you. For example, in the macro that you recorded, the macro recorder generated code that refers to the FormulaR1C1 property.

Not sure what that means? Be aware that Application object is implied in all VBA macros. The code that you recorded works with Application.

Select FormulaR1C1 in the recorded macro and press F1. The Help system runs a quick search, determines that the appropriate subjects are in the Excel Developer section of the Excel Help, and lists the FormulaR1C1 property.

You can choose the link to read more about the property, but before you do, be aware of the Excel Object Model Reference link near the bottom of the window.

Choose the link to view a long list of objects that Excel uses in its object model to describe the Worksheets and their components.

Choose any one of those to see the properties and methods that apply to that particular object, along with cross references to different related options.

Many Help entries also have brief code examples that can help you. For example, you can follow the links in the Borders object to see how to set a border in VBA.

The Borders code looks different from the recorded macro. One thing that can be confusing with an object model is that there is more than one way to address any given object, cell A1 in this example.

Sometimes the best way to learn programming is to make minor changes to some working code and see what happens as a result. Try it now. Open Macro1 in the Visual Basic Editor and change the code to the following.

You do not need to save the code to try it out, so return to the Excel document, choose Macros on the Developer tab, choose Macro1 , and then choose Run.

Cell A1 now contains the text Wow! You just combined macro recording, reading the object model documentation, and simple programming to make a VBA program that does something.

The VBA community is very large; a search on the Web can almost always yield an example of VBA code that does something similar to what you want to do.

If you cannot find a good example, try to break the task down into smaller units and search on each of those, or try to think of a more common, but similar problem.

Starting with an example can save you hours of time. That does not mean that free and well-thought-out code is on the Web waiting for you to come along.

In fact, some of the code that you find might have bugs or mistakes. The idea is that the examples you find online or in VBA documentation give you a head start.

Remember that learning programming requires time and thought. Before you get in a big rush to use another solution to solve your problem, ask yourself whether VBA is the right choice for this problem.

Programming can get complex quickly. It is critical, especially as a beginner, that you break the problem down to the smallest possible logical units, then write and test each piece in isolation.

If you have too much code in front of you and you get confused or muddled, stop and set the problem aside.

When you come back to the problem, copy out a small piece of the problem into a new module, solve that piece, get the code working, and test it to ensure that it works.

Then move on to the next part. There are two main types of programming errors: syntax errors, which violate the grammatical rules of the programming language, and run-time errors, which look syntactically correct, but fail when VBA attempts to execute the code.

Although they can be frustrating to fix, syntax errors are easy to catch; the Visual Basic Editor beeps and flashes at you if you type a syntax error in your code.

For example, string values must be surrounded by double quotes in VBA. To find out what happens when you use single quotes instead, return to the Visual Basic Editor and replace the "Wow!

If you choose the next line, the Visual Basic Editor reacts. The error "Compile error: Expected: expression" is not that helpful, but the line that generates the error turns red to tell you that you have a syntax error in that line and as a result, this program will not run.

Runtime errors are harder to catch because the programming syntax looks correct, but the code fails when VBA tries to execute it.

For example, open the Visual Basic Editor and change the Value property name toValueX in your Macro, deliberately introducing a runtime error since the Range object does not have a property called ValueX.

Go back to the Excel document, open the Macros dialog box and run Macro1 again. You should see a Visual Basic message box that explains the run-time error with the text, "Object doesn't support this property of method.

When you return to the Visual Basic Editor, it is in a special debug mode that uses a yellow highlight to show you the line of code that failed.

As expected, the line that includes the ValueX property is highlighted. You can make changes to VBA code that is running, so change ValueX back to Value and choose the little green play button underneath the Debug menu.

The program should run normally again. It is a good idea to learn how to use the debugger more deliberately for longer, more complex programs.

At a minimum, learn a how to set break-points to stop execution at a point where you want to take a look at the code, how to add watches to see the values of different variables and properties as the code runs, and how to step through the code line by line.

These options are all available in the Debug menu and serious debugger users typically memorize the accompanying keyboard shortcuts.

To open the Developer Reference that is built into Office Help, open the Help reference from any Office application by choosing the question mark in the ribbon or by pressing F1.

Then, to the right of the Search button, choose the dropdown arrow to filter the contents. Next step is to start Client Socket Program.

Then you will get message in client screen Client Started , at the same time you check with server screen a message Accept connection from client.

If you want to test the communication , you click the button Click here to send data to Server in client window , then you can see changes in Server and Client screen messages.

Home C VB. In the above picture shows the communication interfaces. How to run this program? The Socket Programming has two sections.

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